TOP NEWS : Does FBI Memo Prove Aliens Landing In 1947?

19 April 2011

Mystery Around Last Supper Finally Solved?

Christians have long celebrated Jesus Christ's Last Supper on Maundy Thursday but new research released Monday claims to show it took place on the Wednesday before the crucifixion. Professor Colin Humphreys, a scientist at the University of Cambridge, believes it is all due to a calendar mix-up -- and asserts his findings strengthen the case for finally introducing a fixed date for Easter. Humphreys uses a combination of biblical, historical and astronomical research to try to pinpoint the precise nature and timing of Jesus's final meal with his disciples before his death. Researchers have long been puzzled by an apparent inconsistency in the Bible. While Matthew, Mark and Luke all say the Last Supper coincided with the start of the Jewish festival of Passover, John claims it took place before Passover. Humphreys has concluded in a new book, "The Mystery Of The Last Supper", that Jesus -- along with Matthew, Mark and Luke -- may have been using a different calendar to John. "Whatever you think about the Bible, the fact is that Jewish people would never mistake the Passover meal for another meal, so for the Gospels to contradict themselves in this regard is really hard to understand," Humphreys said. "Many biblical scholars say that, for this reason, you can't trust the Gospels at all. But if we use science and the Gospels hand in hand, we can actually prove that there was no contradiction." In Humphreys' theory, Jesus went by an old-fashioned Jewish calendar rather than the official lunar calendar which was in widespread use at the time of his death and is still in use today. This would put the Passover meal - - and the Last Supper -- on the Wednesday, explaining how such a large number of events took place between the meal and the crucifixion. It would follow that Jesus' arrest, interrogation and separate trials did not all take place in the space of one night but in fact occurred over a longer period. Humphreys believes a date could therefore be ascribed to Easter in our modern solar calendar, and working on the basis that the crucifixion took place on April 3 , Easter Day would be on April 5.

10 April 2011

Esoteric World Of Sir Isaac Newton

Undoubtedly one of the most brilliant minds ever to walk on in the history of mankind, Sir Isaac Newton was a scientist par excellence and a scholastic extraordinaire. The marvels of this English physicist, mathematician, astronomer and theologian are indisputably acknowledged as crucial to the betterment of human understanding of the ways of the world and certainly, that of the Universe. More than two centuries after his death (31 st March marks his 284 th anniversary of his demise) Newton, whose genius is celebrated truly for laying much of the groundwork for modern physics, astronomy, mathematics and the study of optics, remains the foremost scientific intellect whose excellence in natural science continue to mesmerise all within the periphery of the Earth. But surprisingly, even though today we know Sir Isaac Newton as a scientist, however, he was, in fact, an alchemist by heart and practiced this mystic art with great deal of devotion and splendour. The truth is, astonishingly, Newton spent most of his lifetime studying numerous branches of occult studies and alchemy than the all the work he did on aspects of natural sciences that he is known for today. It is believed now that Newton’s very own scientific works were somewhat of lesser personal importance to him as he himself prioritised more emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom and the mystic ways of the ancients. But before we step into the esoteric, mystic and less-understood world of this brilliant man, few words are in order regarding the mortal life of this eccentric scientific genius. Three months after the death of his father who was also named Isaac Newton, a prosperous farmer, Sir Isaac Newton Jr. was born on 4 th January, 1643 as per Gregorian calendar which we follow today or otherwise on the very Christmas day of 1642 in Woolsthrope, near Grantham, Lincolnshire. Born prematurely, the baby Newton was a sickly, small child who, according to his mother Hannah Avscough, would have easily fitted inside of a quart mug. Grew up to be awkward, quarrelsome, distant, unpleasant and notoriously egocentric, the young Newton spent his schooling years at The King’s School, Grantham from the age 12 to 17 which was neither inspiring nor challenging for his calibre of intellect. In 1661 , he was admitted to the Trinity College, Cambridge where, despite the institution’s Aristotelian approach of education, Newton preferred to be enlightened by the works of philosopher like Descartes and astronomers with the likes of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler. In 1665 , at the age of 23 , Isaac Newton discovered Differential Calculus and generalised Binomial Theorem. Despite his modest years in Cambridge, Newton extensively worked in his private studies where he devoted his hours on discovering theories regarding calculus, optics and of course Gravity. In 1667 , he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College and a Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. In 1687 , Newton published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which is considered the single most influential book ever written on Physics. It is in this very book (interestingly, the thoughts of which were spent in the years 1665-1666 , when the noted scientist spent largely in Lincolnshire because of the plague in Cambridge) where he talked decisively on laws of motion, classical mechanics, Kepler’s laws on planetary motion and obviously the law of Universal gravitation. In 1699 he became the Warden of the Royal Mint, the president of the Royal Society of London in 1703 and was knighted in Cambridge in 1705. Sir Isaac Newton, virgin to the day he died, passed away in his sleep at age 84 , in London on 31 st March, 1727. After his death, it was found that his body had massive amount of mercury in it and the initial explanation was that it was most likely due to his experiments with elements of chemistry in his laboratory. But it was only in 1936 , that it was resolutely realised that what was thought to be Newton’s chemistry experiment was, in fact, the practice one of far more esoteric and astonishingly mysterious aspect of knowledge, the great numinous art of Alchemy and other ancient mystical wisdom which, according to many, inspired most of his major scientific discoveries at the first place. It was learnt back in 1936 that a collection of Sir Isaac Newton’s unpublished papers were auctioned in Portsmouth and in them included three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton’s manuscripts, over a third of which are filled with his writings that were exclusively alchemical in nature. At this point it must be understood that contrary to the popular belief that alchemy (going strong for over 2 ,500 years) is all about turning matters into gold, this ancient practice is in fact the quest of achieving the ultimate spiritual wisdom and the persuasion of heavenly illumination of the human soul. The stanch secrecy of the practice which involves the ancient of ways is what makes the philosophical systems of alchemy a deeply mysterious one. The true nature of this particular alchemical writings of Newton is believed yet to be revealed as many feared deeply that if the secret contents were to be exposed it might usher dire consequences to the affairs of the world, a thought shared by Newton himself in his lifetime regarding his all consuming devotion to the esoteric mysticism of various natures. Eventually these papers were bought off by economist John Maynard Keynes (who once stated that “Newton was not the first of the age of reason. He was the last of the magicians”) and document collector Abraham Yahuda. These papers which are referred as the “Portsmouth Papers” are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. It is believed that much of Newton’s other writings on alchemy were destroyed in a fire related accident in his laboratory, allegedly started by his dog, diamond, which destroyed 20 years of his research on various aspects of alchemy! But from the analysis of his surviving works, it is understood that most of Newton’s alchemical work was centred on The Philosopher’s Stone (the very Nicolas Flamel’s Philosopher’s Stone that the first fictional stellar series of Harry Potter is plotted around) which is often associated with the Elixir of Life, the legendary magical potion that grants eternal youth. But it was not only the alchemy that Newton was all consumed in for his deep passion in regard to mysticism and spirituality. Sir Isaac Newton, a deeply religious man, studied the Bible extensively and with faithful efforts and made numerous attempts to extract and decipher hidden messages and scientific information from Bible. And in 1704 , in a manuscript he estimated that the world will come to an end around 2060. But many scholars believe that Newton, with his Aryanism and Anti- Trinitarianism stance, was, in this regard, actually referring to a time when the restiveness of the World was to be replaced by an era of divinely inspired peace and stability. In 1728 , Isaac Newton penned down an extensive manuscript titled “The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms” concentrating on various ancient Eurocentric kingdoms focusing on Greece, Anatolia, Levant and also Egypt, which many belief was an effort initiated by Newton to understand the ancient occult practices and mysticism studies. In this particular manuscript Newton, dedicated an entire chapter on the Temple of Solomon reflecting his original interest in the temple’s sacred geometry but as he studied more on the architectural components of the ancient temple his original interest graduated to a genuine belief that the geometry and the mathematical structures of the temple were in harmony with the size of world and man’s place and proportion to this beautiful blue planet. Newton believed that the works of ancient philosophers and scholars were embedded with mystical and sacred wisdom hidden in the language of symbols and mathematics which, if and when deciphered, would reveal a mysterious yet uniquely powerful knowledge regarding the magical elements and the supremacy of nature. Rumour has it he was successful in this particular quest of his. In the same manuscript of the Ancient Kingdoms, Newton wrote several passages on the mythical land of Atlantis expressing his belief that Homer’ Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 B.C (Ogygia was the home of Calypso, the daughter of Greek God Atlas, after whom the legendary land was named) along with the thought that Ogygia and Atlantis were geographically connected. Throughout his entire life, Sir Isaac Newton was believed to have been involved with numerous powerful secret societies and Gnostic fraternities that are devoted to the practice ancients of occults and esoteric understandings. One such society was Rosicrucian, a philosophical ultra-secret society founded in the late medieval Germany which’s doctrine revolved around knowledge “built on esoteric truths of the ancient” which provides great insight into the nature, the physical Universe and the wondrous realm of spirituality. Aside from analogous alchemical spiritual systems, it is believed one of the aspects that attracted Newton to this society is their exclusive ability to communicate with Angels and the spirit world ( presumably) which many scholars believe coincided with Newton’s visionary belief systems. It is also believed that Sir Isaac Newton was a freemason of highest degree as well as a member of the controversial fraternal organization Priory of Sion, the secret society founded in 1099 AD, allegedly to protect the bloodline of Jesus Christ. Despite of his unpleasantness and lifelong dedication to the esoteric mysticism, Sir Isaac Newton was a gifted individual who understood the grandeur as well as the obscurity of the Universe with great deal of precision as well as admiration. We live in a world where much of its affairs are vaguely understood, let alone the enigmatic ways of the whole Universe. Mankind surely has a long way to go and Newton realised it very well. This is what he wrote before his death, “I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy, playing on seashore, and diverting myself, in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.”

22 March 2011

Pyramids in China


Early stories about the pyramids in China began right around the Second World War. A US Air Force pilot named James Gaussman reportedly saw a white-topped pyramid during a flight between China and India in 1945. Walter Hain, an author and science writer, reports in his homepages (see his article below) how Gaussman described his first sighting of the pyramid. "I banked to avoid a mountain and we came out over a level valley. Directly below was a gigantic white pyramid. It looked like something out of a fairy tale. It was encased in shimmering white. This could have been metal, or some sort of stone. It was pure white on all sides. The remarkable thing was the capstone, a huge piece of jewel-like material that could have been crystal. There was no way we could have landed, although we wanted to. We were struck by the immensity of the thing." The story was subsequently picked up by the New York Times, who ran a story about the pyramid on March 28, 1947. Colonel Maurice Sheahan, Far Eastern director of Trans World Airlines gave an interview saying he had seen a gigantic pyramid 40 miles southwest of Xian. Two days after the report, the same newspaper published a photo, which was later attributed to Gaussman.
The worlds largest pyramid is rumored to be in Qin Lin county in a 'forbidden zone' of China, estimated at nearly 1,000 ft high and made of impounded earth and clay, and holding vast tombs. The Chinese govt have long denied the existence of 100 or so pyramids though the increasing tourism to the Xian tombs area (the Terracotta Army) is threatening the secrecy with tourists climbing the 25-100m pyramids for themselves.

The government has planted trees on them to disguise them too. After outright denying their existence, the government finally admitted to the existence to New Zealand author Bruce Cathie of some 'trapezoid tombs', however a fabled white pyramid 1000 ft high has only ever been seen by a few Westerners this century. Here is an excerpt from a book:
"I was searching for a pyramid which was said to have been, once, many millennia ago, multicolored, and to now be a dusty white. This was a pyramid which, legend has it, rises to the astonishing height of 1,000 feet - four-fifths the elevation of the Empire State Building. Not only was this extraordinary structure said to be the largest pyramid in the world (the Giant Pyramid of Egypt, by comparison, rises a mere 450 feet); but, in the valleys surrounding it, there were said to be dozens of other pyramids, some rising to an elevation almost as great.
Until recently, Chinese officials have rebuffed all questions about these pyramids and all requests to view them. And yet, over this century, a certain mythology has grown up around them. An American trader, stumbling upon these amazing structures in 1912, asked his Buddhist monk-guide about them. He was told that 5,000-year-old monastic documents not only contained information about these pyramids, but said the pyramids were extremely old when these records were made.
The trader, Fred Meyer Schroder, observed several smaller pyramids in the distance. He wrote in his travel diary that his first sight of the giant pyramid, along with its smaller cousins, rendered him almost speechless. "It was even more uncanny than if we had found it in the wilderness," he wrote. "But those [ pyra-mids) were to some extent exposed to the eyes of the world—but still totally unknown in the western world."
In the Far East in the spring of 1945, though Japanese troops were still fighting in China, the U.S. Army and its allies were well on their way to pushing the Japanese off the mainland. One day, U.S. Air Force Pilot James Gaussman was returning to Assam, in India, after having flown the ‘Burma Hump’-ferried supplies to Chungking, China, from India-when engine trouble forced him to descend temporarily to a low altitude over China. As he later wrote:
"I flew around a mountain and then we came to a valley. Directly below us was a gigantic white pyramid. It looked as if it were from a fairy tale. The pyramid was draped in shimmering white. It could have been metal, or some other form of stone. It was white on all sides. What was most curious about it was its capstone: a large piece of precious gem-like material. I was deeply moved by the colossal size of the thing."
When Gaussman arrived back in Assam, combat duties pushed the sighting from his mind. Photographs he had taken of the giant pyramid would not be published for another 45 years. Till then, even his report would be buried in the Secret Service files of the U.S. military
Two years later, in 1947, another U.S. aviator, Maurice Sheahan—this time flying over Shaanxi Province, not far from Xian-- caught sight of a giant pyramid in the misty landscape below and rapidly snapped pictures. This time, several U.S. newspapers, in-cluding the New York Times for March 28, 1947, published accounts of the airman’s sighting. But Chinese archaeologists con-tinued to deny the existence of such a structure, even though Sheahan’s photographs suggested it was higher than any pyramid in Egypt. "
Today, with help of satellite images, we can be certain beyond any doubt that pyramids in China are real (and man-made).

Pyramid near the City Xian, on 34.22 North and 108.41 East.  

Pyramids in China

A report by Walter Hain
New evidences 2009
The "White Pyramid" discovered! It is the Maoling Mausoleum!
Original article from October 25, 2006 revised in Feb 2009
Since many years already in the popular scientific community and in publications there are many announcements and contentions of gigantic pyramids in China. The puzzle around the look-up seems final after new discoveries. With the help of Google Earth, the objects are to be seen impressively. It can not be maintained longer, there might be no pyramids in China.! They have four sides and they are even square like the pyramids in Egypt and in Mexico. Its size can quite be matched with those of the Pharaons and of the Mexican rulers.
Already in 1912 of the two travel agents Fred Meyer Schroder and Oscar Maman reported of a tremendous building that they had seen in China."It was more eerie than if we had found them in the wilderness. Here they had been under the nose of the world, but unknown to the western countries... The big pyramid is about 1,000 feet high (other descriptions estimate 1,000 to 1,200 feet high) and roughly 1,500 feet at the base, which makes it twice as large as any pyramid in Egypt. The four faces of the structure are oriented with the compass points," the two travellers reported.
During the second world war, the pilot of the American Air Force, James Gaussman, with his co-pilot, flow - through a technical defect at his machine -, for several times over a specific territory in China. What he later reported sounds completely unbelievable: "I banked to avoid a mountain and we came out over a level valley. Directly below was a gigantic white pyramid. It looked like something out of a fairy tale. It was encased in shimmering white. This could have been metal, or some sort of stone. It was pure white on all sides. The remarkable thing was the capstone, a huge piece of jewel-like material that could have been crystal. There was no way we could have landed, although we wanted to. We were struck by the immensity of the thing", the pilots reported.
On March 28, 1947 the "New York Times" reported about that discovery. In an interview with the newspaper, the former far east director of the Transworld Airlines, Maurice Sheahan, says he has seen 40 miles southwest of Xian a gigantic pyramid."I was impressed by its perfect pyramidal form and its great size," says Sheahan.
Later, on March 30, 1947 the "New York Sunday Times" take over the report and published at the first the photo, which is actually made in 1945 by Gaussman, and that was soon forgotten.
In 1978 the New Zealand researcher Bruce L. Cathie bothered itself of a clarification of the puzzle. According to some correspondence with the Chinese embassy and the US air force he kept up the photo of 1947. He published the picture later in the first edition of his book "The Bridge to Infinity" of 1983. According to the photograph and the reports, the New Zealand researcher estimate that the pyramid must have at their basis a length of 450 meters (1500 feet) and a height of about 300 meters (1000 feet). It is a pyramid with four flat trapezoid shaped sides, a square plateau on the top and a square base, like the pyramids in Egypt and in Mexico. Such pyramids were up to now unknown to the experts in the western world and its existence was always denied: "There are no pyramids in China! Only pagodas - temple liked, peaked buildings", so the opinion of the world experts.

A comparison of a former satellite image of a pyramid in Shaanxi  with the photo of 1947
found in the homepage of earthquest.co.uk of November 2001.
I came to the "white pyramid" when I already read reports in specialized books before and then I saw the appropriate photograph in the book "The Face on Mars" of 1989 from the two Australian authors Brian Crowley and James J. Hurtak. Brian Crowley then sent a copy of the image in his book to me and then I passed it to Peter Krassa - a Austrian book author and China researcher. Later I published it in my German book "Das Marsgesicht" (The Face on Mars) of 1995.
I have left indeed Peter Krassa the photograph, but I wanted to however make and therefore prove attentive, that there are in fact pyramids in China. At the German edition "Ancient Skies", the journal of the "Ancient Astronaut Society", no. 6, 1991, I published a short report. One did not want to however publish the photograph of 1947. Gene Phillips, the founder of the mentioned society, has refused a report from me in the American journal of the Society - with the reason, the photograph could be "something doctored", somehow falsified. He considered the photograph for a forgery.
However, I was some extent amazed when I saw a German book in a bookshop in Hamburg, Germany - during a lecture trip - with the title "Die weisse Pyramide" (The white pyramid), written by Hartwig Hausdorf, he was until then completely unknown to me. The book appeared in 1994 and then I found out that Peter Krassa had made the photograph available to him - without my knowledge. However, Hartwig Hausdorf mentioned me in his book so the case is functional. Hartwig Hausdorf was very much strove anyway - and that was also my aim - for the thing and he has undertaken several China trips, around the report to go onto the basis. He found several pyramid mountains in China in fact and he has also published photographs from that. These were the first real evidence that there are pyramidal buildings in China exist. The "white pyramid" could constitute Hausdorf nonetheless not.
Bruce L. Cathie announces many details in its book "The bridge to Infinity" over pyramids in China and especially over the "white pyramid" - so too precise coordinate information. They should be had found north of the contemporary city Sian (Xi´an), by the foot of the river Wei-ho - exact at 34.26 degrees of northern width and 108.52 degrees of eastern length. This data were for me very helpful when I searched in September 2006, with "Google Earth" over China after the pyramids. This program was in the last years set up extended from Google into the Internet and one can recognize phantastic details of the Earth's surface, by means of satellite consumption - as e.g. too the mysterious lines in the plain of Nazca. The solution is not in all fields optimally, nevertheless mostly quite well.
According to some trouble I then kept up after the coordinate information of Bruce L. Cathie two pyramids. As result, I found further, more than twenty and bigger pyramids. They are square earth-pillars, constructed by Chinese craftsmen a long time ago very obviously. The professional world has therefore improper. There are indeed pyramids in China! Google Earth confirmed that again. The biggest one in this area is on 34.23 degrees North and 108.42 degrees East. The opinions diverge via the age of the pyramids. Some speak of 2500 to 3500 years. The legendary "Emperor of the prehistoric time" should at that time have been there.
The pyramids are in the province Shaanxi, north of the city Sian (Xi´an). On the satellite photographs of Google Earth, no "white pyramid" is to be recognized. Under the coordinates 34.26 degrees of North and 108.52 degrees East, two pyramids are visible, but however they are not identical to the photo from 1947. The pyramid lying a little southwest, in my opinion, comes onto 34.22 North most of all and 108.41 East, north of the small city Hsien-yang into consideration. An arrangement shows similar factors as on the photograph from 1947: A square plateau, grazes (excavations) on the sidewalls, similar ones walkways (streets) and in the background, a small settlement. But that pyramid is definitely not the "white pyramid".

The Maoling Mausoleum is the burial site of Emperor Wu Di. (Image: China.org)
In some Internet pages (Chris Maier) and in the homepage of wikipedia, the Maoling mausoleum is compared with the "white pyramid". And that is in actual fact correct. Already on former satellite images which were published in the homepage of earthquest.co.uk of November 2001, that is to be recognized. With Google Earth, this pyramid - although at present another with bad resolution - is it to be seen also. They lies west of the pyramids of Hsien-yang, close to the city Xianyang, on 30.20 degrees North and 108.34 degrees East.
The "white pyramid" needs not to be a tremendous mystic building. The pilots and the travel agents to see the Maoling mausoleum, with his size - according to the measurements via Google Earth - of about 222 to 217 meters on the ground and his height of about 46 meters, can quite have appeared below glistening sunlight glimmering and quite big. No other pyramid in this area is so big. Only the one on 34.23 North and 108.42 East, which has a size of 219 to 230 meters on the ground. The well known Shi Huang-ti Mausoleum, situated 50 kilometers East, has a size of 357 to 354 meters on the base and the whole complex has a size of 488 to 581 meters. But that grave mountain is actually a square mound and not a pyramid. Attainable is the area near Hsien-yang over the city Xi´an (Sian) obvious the airport that Hartwig Hausdorf with some traveling companions already used in 1994. They could for instance constitute seventeen pyramids within a radius of about three kilometers and they estimated its heights at sixty to seventy meters.

This new 3d image of the Maoling Mausoleum
shows the same characteristics as the image of 1947.
NEW!!! This pyramid, of February 2009 by Google Earth, shows again the wellknown Maoling Mausoleum but in a better solution from GeoEye. The comparison above shows that is indeed the "white pyramid".
By the new aperture of China to the west, the corresponding investigations too would be able to be made amenable now at last for experts from other countries. For the better sense of China and of its past.
A comparison of the Gizeh pyramid complex (top image)
with a pyramid complex in Shaanxi (bottom image)..
Pyramids in China - map (click to enlarge).
Chinese Pyramids coordinates:
  • Maoling Mausoleum 1: size 222 x 217 m, 34°20'17"N 108°34'11"E
  • Pyramid 6: size 153 x 158 m, 34°21'47.16"N 108°37'49.80"E
  • Pyramid 7: size 149 x 155 m, 34°21'42.48"N 108°38'24.36"E
  • Pyramid 11: size 155 x 154 m, 34°22'29.64"N 108°41'51.36"E
  • Pyramid 15: size 219 x 230 m, 34°23'52"N 108°42'43"E
  • Pyramid 31: size 126 x 149 m, 34°14'09.00"N 109°07'05.00"E
  • Pyramids 33,34,35: bigest 160 x 167 m, 34°10'45.00"N 109°01'41.00"E
  • Huang-ti Mausoleum 37: size 354 x 357 m, 34°22'52"N 109°15'12"E

View Chinese Pyramids on Google Earth

Pyramid 6: size 153 x 158 m, 34°21'47.16"N 108°37'49.80"E
Pyramid 7: size 149 x 155 m, 34°21'42.48"N 108°38'24.36"E
Click to enlarge.

Pyramid 11: size 155 x 154 m, 34°22'29.64"N 108°41'51.36"E

Pyramid 15: size 219 x 230 m, 34°23'52"N 108°42'43"E

Pyramid 31: size 126 x 149 m, 34°14'09.00"N 109°07'05.00"E

Pyramids 33,34,35: bigest 160 x 167 m, 34°10'45.00"N 109°01'41.00"E
Huang-ti Mausoleum 37: size 354 x 357 m, 34°22'52"N 109°15'12"E

Maoling Mausoleum 1: size 222 x 217 m, 34°20'17"N 108°34'11"E

Puma Punku (Puma Punka)

Puma Punku, truly startles the imagination. It seems to be the remains of a great wharf (for Lake Titicaca long ago lapped upon the shores of Tiahuanaco) and a massive, four-part, now collapsed building. One of the construction blocks from which the pier was fashioned weighs an estimated 440 tons (equal to nearly 600 full-size cars) and several other blocks laying about are between 100 and 150 tons.

The quarry for these giant blocks was on the western shore of Titicaca, some ten miles away. There is no known technology in all the ancient world that could have transported stones of such massive weight and size. The Andean people of 500 AD, with their simple reed boats, could certainly not have moved them. Even today, with all the modern advances in engineering and mathematics, we could not fashion such a structure.
Just out of the aerial picture (below) to the bottom left is the site of the Puma Punku. This is another 'temple area' with many finely cut stones some weighing over 100 tonnes. Its position to the south of the Akapana may have been important because it gave a good view to a sacred mountain far to the east.

Of course there is no certainty that this was the reason as the ancient builders left no written records.
All the legends have been handed down through the generations.
Puma Punku ruins, Tiahuanaco, Bolivia
(courtesy of www.sacredsites.com and Martin Gray)
How were these monstrous stones moved and what was their purpose?
Posnansky suggested an answer, based upon his studies of the astronomical alignments of Tiahuanaco, but that answer is considered so controversial, even impossible, that it has been ignored and censured by the scientific community for fifty years.
Carved stone block at Puma Punku. This precision-made 6 mm wide
groove contains equidistant, drilled holes. It seems impossible that this
cuts were made with use of stone or copper tools.
The so-called Gate of the Sun seen at the back side.
Made of one piece of hard rock. Possibly it was a part of a large wall.
By the courtesy of www.inkatour.com, nr. 3696
Puma Punku doesn’t look impressive: a hill as remains of an old pyramid and a large number of megalithic block of stone on the ground, evidently smashed by a devastating earthquake. However, closer inspection shows that these stone blocks have been fabricated with a very advanced technology. Even more surprising is the technical design of these blocks shown in the drawing below. All blocks fit together like interlocking building blocks.
Source: Jean-Pierre Protzen & Stella E.Nair, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture”, Jpurnal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 59, Nr.3, 2000, pp. 358-371

Artistic interpretation © World-Mysteries.com

Artistic interpretation © World-Mysteries.com
A wall of the Akapana, the pyramid of Tiahuanacu, shows similar modular design.
Blocks that are piled one on top of the other but the underside of the upper stone is cut at an angle. The top of the standing stone is cut at the same angle, as shown on the figure below.
Source: Jean-Pierre Protzen & Stella E.Nair, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture”, Jpurnal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 59, Nr.3, 2000, pp. 358-371

This stone technology plainly contradicts what official archaeology suggests about the general state of development of the ancient peoples of South-America.

"Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des alten Peru"
(The Ruins of Tiahuanaco in the Highlands of Ancient Peru)
1892 book about Tiahanaco written by two German
discoverers and engineers Alphons Stübel and Max Uhle
The architectural achievements seen at Pumapunku are striking in light of the presumed level of technological capability available during its construction. Due to the monumental proportions of the stones, the method by which they were transported to Pumapunku has been a topic of interest since the temple's discovery.  The largest of these stone blocks is 7.81 meters long, 5.17 meters wide, averages 1.07 meters thick, and is estimated to weigh about 131 metric tons. The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunka is 7.90 meters long, 2.50 meters wide, and averages 1.86 meters thick. Its weight has been estimated to be 85.21 metric tons. Both of these stone blocks are part of the Plataforma Lítica and composed of red sandstone. Based upon detailed petrographic and chemical analyses of samples from both individual stones and known quarry sites, archaeologists concluded that these and other red sandstone blocks were transported up a steep incline from a quarry near Lake Titicaca roughly 10 km away. Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 km away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunka and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site.

More Pictures of Puma Punku

Shattered stones of the Pumapunku (Photo by Clark Erickson)



At the northern end of the Sacred Valley, Ollantaytambo is rare if not unique in Peru.
Ollantaytambo is a massive citadel located 50 kilometers from Machu Picchu. The citadel served as both a temple and a fortress. At some time unknown, and for reasons unknown, work mysteriously stopped on this huge project.

Photograph courtesy of SacredSites.com
Inca terraces (left) and megalithic wall (right) at pre-Inca site of Ollantaytambo.

Mysterious Pre-Inca megalithic stonework at Ollantaytambo

Wall of the Six Monoliths.  Click on the photo to enlarge

Click on the photo to enlarge

Terraces of Pumatallis
Click on the photo to enlarge
The main quarries of Ollantaytambo were located at Kachiqhata, in a ravine across the Urubamba River some 5 kilometers from the town. The site features three main quarrying areas: Mullup'urku, Kantirayoq, and Sirkusirkuyoq; all of them provided blocks of rose rhyolite for the elaborate buildings of the Temple Hill. An elaborate network of roads, ramps, and slides connected them with the main building areas.

Stone Technology

The Sun Temple (above) that was constructed with huge red porphyry (pink granite) boulders. The stone quarry is named Kachiqhata (Salt Slope) and is located about 4 km (2.5 miles) away on the other side of the valley, by the upper side of the opposite south-western mountains. The boulders were carved partially in the quarries, and taken down to the valley's bottom. In order to cross the river Quechuas constructed an artificial channel parallel to the natural river bed that served for deviating the river's water according to conveniences. Therefore, while that water flowed through one channel the other was dry, thus stones could be taken to the other side of the valley. More over, the boulders were transported to the upper spot where the temple is erected using the inclined plane that is something like a road which silhouette is clearly seen from the valley's bottom. They had the help of log rollers or rolling stones as wheels, South-American cameloids' leather ropes, levers, pulleys, and the power of hundreds and even thousands of men. Today, on the way from the quarry to the temple there are dozens of enormous stones that people know as " tired stones" because it is believed that they could never be transported to their destination; those stones are the reason why some authors claim that the Sun Temple was unfinished when the Spanish invasion happened.
Massive, multi-sided blocks were precisely fitted together in interlocking
patterns in order to withstand the disastrous effects of earth quakes.
Scientists speculate that the masonry process might have worked like this: after carving the desired shape out of the first boulder and fitting it in place, the masons would somehow suspend the second boulder on scaffolding next to the first one. They would then have to trace out a pattern on the second boulder in order to plan the appropriate jigsaw shape that would fit the two together. In order to make a precise copy of the first boulder's edges, the masons might have used a straight stick with a hanging plum-bob to trace its edges and mark off exact points for carving on the second boulder. After tracing out the pattern, they would sculpt the stone into shape, pounding it with hand-sized stones to get the general shape before using finger-size stones for precision sanding. Admittedly, this entire technique is merely scientific speculation. The method might have worked in practice but that doesn't mean this is how the ancient Quechua stonemasons did it.
"How were such titanic blocks of stone brought to the top of the mountain from the quarries many miles away? How were they cut and fitted? How were they raised and put in place? Now one knows, no one can even guess. There are archaeologists, scientists, who would have us believe that the dense, hard andesite rock was cut, surfaced and faced by means of stone or bronze tools. Such an explanation is so utterly preposterous that it is not even worthy of serious consideration. No one ever has found anywhere any stone tool or implement that would cut or chip the andesite, and no bronze ever made will make any impression upon it."
A. Hyatt & Ruth Verrill ----America's Ancient Civilizations
Jean-Pierre Protzen thinks the Verrills was wrong. He went to Cuzco and showed how river rocks could be used as hammers to pound stones into the desired shape.
"It appears that the Inca technique of fitting the blocks together was based largely on trial and error. It is a laborious method, particularly if one considers the size of some of the huge stones at Sacsahuaman or Ollantaytambo. What should be kept in mind, however, is that time and labour power were probably of little concern to the Incas, who did not have a European notion of time and had plenty of tribute labour from conquered peoples at their disposal."
Jean-Pierre Protzen ---Scientific American ---Feb. 1986
Was this monolith carved with stone tools?
Eric Von Daniken, in his series of books beginning with Chariots of the Gods theorized that the Andean stone-works were build by Alien/Gods who visited the earth long ago, bringing civilization to primitive man. The scientific community simply snickered.
Whatever one thinks of his theories, he brought to the public an awareness of the many ancient monuments on earth that seem to defy rational explanation.
Everybody who has traveled to Egypt, Mesopotamia, South America and many ancient places has seen it: the astonishing craftsmanship of these ancient stoneworkers. The precision fit of large stone blocks is eminent in both the Old and New World. It is hardly imaginable, that all of this should have been done by pure manual work alone. This very interesting link, Ancient Stone Technology, also  includes theories of Professor Davidovits from the Geopolymer Institute in France.
In short, his theory is that the 2 million blocks of limestone that make up the core of the pyramid of Chufu (Cheops), have not been cut into shape, but the limestone was solved in water, brought to the building place in small portions and then the blocks were cast in situ.  Even more interesting are his ideas on the precision-fit Inca walls: He puts forward a technique to soften the stone by use of acid plant extracts!
Another interesting website is STONE TECHNOLOGY. The ancient Egyptians were masters in working with stone. These pages document photographic evidence, historical research and contemporary debates on stone technology. Topics include predynastic stonewares, straight saws, circular saws, tube drilling and lathes - Photos, Research Papers and Newsgroup Debate Summaries.

Aramu Muru

Another similar in nature megalithic structure is Aramu Muru near the Lake Titicaca.
Lake Titicaca, on the borders of Peru and Bolivia, is where Inca legends say life on Earth was first created by Viracocha. In the center of the lake is the Island of the Sun, with an ancient, sacred temple. Nearby is Sillustani, where mysterious burial towers called chulpas were once plated with gold and held the remains of Inca royalty.
A few miles away is Aramu Muru’s Portal, a doorway-shaped niche in a stone outcropping, located in a region known as the Valley of the Spirits. The local villagers who walked with us refused to come close to the portal. They tell stories about people disappearing through the solid rock.

Photograph courtesy of SacredSites.com
Mysterious giant stone sculpture of Aramu Muru, north of Chucuito, Peru